It is hard to get all participants together at one location at one specific point of time, especially when dealing with entrepreneurs who have many responsibilities at hand. Moreover, chances were that the contestants would eventually end up discussing in their home language rather than in German, which would have made the messages transferred impossible for us to understand and much less analyzable. The distribution of questionnaires is of course the easiest and fastest way of data collection, which also allows for a structured analysis afterwards.
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Moreover, the research candidates can fill in the questionnaire when it best fits into their busy timetable. However, for our purposes we did not consider this method adequate, mainly because we were dealing with immigrants whose first language is not German.
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When filling in a questionnaire alone in private, comprehension problems cannot be solved or might not even be realized by the respondents and thus not produce viable answers. Also, we did not expect to receive too many responses with this method, because most candidates would probably not be motivated to invest their time and effort without any direct personal suasion. Instead, we chose personal structured interviews as a means for our data collection.
This method combines the advantages of questionnaires and focus group discussions. We prepared a master questionnaire that enabled a smooth conduct of interviews and allowed for an organized comparison and analysis of information. At the same time, in depth insights could be gained in the course of the conversations with our respondents. Misunderstandings due to wordings or grammar could be elicited also see 3. Experiences on Making Interviews.
The structure of our master questionnaire was reasoned by the principle of broad to narrower questions. For instance, we first asked about the personal classification of integration, before inquiring about further attitudes and opinions. This way, we wanted to provide a starting platform for the contestants to keep in mind, when answering the other questions.
Indicators for business conduct and success were hidden here and there within the questionnaire to make them less obvious, because we anticipated that this would be a rather delicate issue to most entrepreneurs.
The most intimate questions about the income respectively, number of people living on the income and age were posed at the very end, when a certain basis of mutual trust would possibly have developed that attenuates this intrusion into the private sphere. In order to make our interviews comparable, we have prepared a master questionnaire. Before starting off with our actual research we tested our first draft questionnaire on two individuals. We decided to conduct our test-run during the morning hours when costomer numbers are low.
Our first contact with a kebab shop owner at a quarter past ten was a deception because he sent us away. Even though there was no single costomer around, he suggested that we should have come at 8. Assuming that the shop owner was not willing to answer our questionnaire in general, we moved on. Eventually, we got two guinea pig interviews in very distinctive kebab shops. One of them was a typical fast food place with a counter and a couple of bar stools. The other was a fancy restaurant that was part of a big franchising company. Here they only offered kebabs as a supplement to their regular menu.
While conducting the interviews we realized that some of our formulations were not suitable for our interviewees to understand. Furthermore, some questions were not answered at all, either because they were too difficult to answer or because they were to privat. The question about child education was obviously too broad and required to much time to ponder in its original version . We changed this question into a selected response question, which was more specific and helped our respondents by providing them with pre-designed answers of question None of our test contestants wanted to give us any information about their monthly earnings.
Consequently, we tried to get around this direct inquiry in our actual research interviews by asking more indirectly about the economic profit. In order to do so, we identified other crucial key indicators for business success, such as the number of employees, the number of people living on the entrepreneurial profit and the number of kebabs sold per day, multiplied by the single retail price. We hoped to investigate the actual revenue of each enterprise on an inconspicuous detour, as we placed the question about the price per piece and question about the daily sales well apart from each other.
In the starting phase of our first main interviews that were used for this study we came across additional interesting facts that we had not taken into account when finalising our master questionnaire during the test phase. When posing question number 34 about the acceptance of a possible marriage between a Turk and a German, two out of the first three correspondents claimed that they had been married to a German partner themselves. This question proved to be an additional indicator for the different degrees of integration in the two sampling groups.
Our overall impression in the course of the interviews was mostly positive, for example, we were often invited for tee or coffee. The time between three and six pm proved to be the best time of the day for interviews in the rural areas because most customers come for lunch and dinner.
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The shop owners in the city, by contrast, were best available during the early morning hours, because customer tend to visit the shop throughout the whole day. In some cases the actual shop owner was not on-hand at that time so that we had to come back later that day or another day. In one interview we erroneously believed that we were talking to the owner of the shop until it came to light that the little restaurant officially belonged to his daughter. Obviously, her father largely influenced her and her business.
Usually our questionnaires took around minutes but sometimes even up to an hour. This was mainly due to remote background stories that were connected to the topic of culture and integration. In some cases language barriers made the interview process more difficult and also more time consuming, as we had to rephrase some questions several times and explain some unfamiliar vocabularies. We also realized that some of our shop owners were biased towards interviews of this kind as they experienced similar questionings during the application for their naturalization as German citizens.
In these cases we had to persuade the candidates in a most possible friendly and unobtrusive way. Concerning the question of integration, Plahuta , p. Following we are going to examine in how far the various aspects of integration differ among our two sampling groups.
Moreover, we will discuss the differences of ethnic ownership economies and ethnic enclave economies described by Plahuta , p. One determinant for the degree of cultural integration is for example sufficient language knowledge Plahuta, , p. All of our questioned entrepreneurs in smaller towns and villages agreed that fluency in German is an important element of integration, whereas only 10 out of the 15 respondents from Hamburg Veddel supported this statement. However, in the majority part of all kebab shops, whether in the city or countryside, German is the predominantly used language question We believe this fact to be natural or even indispensable, taking into consideration that almost all clients in the rural area and about every second customer in Hamburg-Veddel is German question Also, both our sampling groups claimed that almost all of their family members were able to speak German question 22 and more than half of all even use it as their preferred language in every day life question This is at least the case when they are not at home in private, for nine respondents from rural areas and eight respondents from the City of Hamburg prefer to communicate in their home language when they are among their Turkish family and friends question D H Dirk Hollank Author.
Add to cart. Contents 1. These are the Office of Statistics Mr. Bastin of Belgium , and the Division of Information Mr. Geoffrey Parsons, Jr. The Information Division, besides providing material about NATO for the use of member governments, it does not engage in independent operations , is also the press and public relations branch of the civilian authority.
NATO official documents say '.. The British made strong representations in discussions regarding the Mediterranean NATO command structure, wishing to retain their direction of NATO naval command in the Mediterranean to protect their sea lines of communication running through the Mediterranean to the Middle East and Far East. Army General.
This was due to the two states' geographic distance from the LANDSOUTH headquarters, as well as political disagreements over which nation should be the overall commander for their ground forces.
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Six multinational corps were to replace the previous eight. Two were to be under German command, one with a U. On July 1, , the Alliance disestablished Allied Command Channel , through retaining many of its subordinate structures after reshuffling. Recommendations from the study for a new, streamlined structure emerged in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Cold War. Retrieved 26 March Streit Council. Retrieved 10 July Retrieved 17 January Archived from the original on 15 March Retrieved 10 April New York Times : E7.
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NATO the first five years — Archived from the original on 3 November Retrieved 4 September Canadian Army Trophy. CBC News. Retrieved 16 July BBC News. Retrieved 27 September CBS News. NATO Review.
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Retrieved 19 December The Washington Post. Crisis and Change in the Atlantic Order , eds. Retrieved 13 August The Atlantic Council. Retrieved 30 April Bruce; Barry, Charles L. September Center for Technology and National Security Policy. National Defense University.
The Observer. Retrieved 1 May The Economist. Retrieved 3 April Itzkowitz International Security.
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